PURATEN LED Plant Grow Light Strips, 90LEDs 3 Light Bar Plant Light Full Spectrum LED Grow Lamp with Auto Timer 4/8/12H, 5 Dimmable Level for Indoor Plants Hydroponic(size:uk plug)

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PURATEN LED Plant Grow Light Strips, 90LEDs 3 Light Bar Plant Light Full Spectrum LED Grow Lamp with Auto Timer 4/8/12H, 5 Dimmable Level for Indoor Plants Hydroponic(size:uk plug)

PURATEN LED Plant Grow Light Strips, 90LEDs 3 Light Bar Plant Light Full Spectrum LED Grow Lamp with Auto Timer 4/8/12H, 5 Dimmable Level for Indoor Plants Hydroponic(size:uk plug)

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Puritans should not be confused with other radical Protestant groups of the 16th and 17th centuries, such as Quakers, Seekers, and Familists, who believed that individuals could be directly guided by the Holy Spirit and prioritized direct revelation over the Bible. [12] The analysis of "mainstream Puritanism" in terms of the evolution from it of Separatist and antinomian groups that did not flourish, and others that continue to this day, such as Baptists and Quakers, can suffer in this way. The national context (England and Wales, as well as the kingdoms of Scotland and Ireland) frames the definition of Puritans, but was not a self-identification for those Protestants who saw the progress of the Thirty Years' War from 1620 as directly bearing on their denomination, and as a continuation of the religious wars of the previous century, carried on by the English Civil Wars. English historian Christopher Hill, who has contributed to analyses of Puritan concerns that are more respected than accepted, writes of the 1630s, old church lands, and the accusations that William Laud was a crypto-Catholic: Campbell, John Campbell Baron (1851). John Lord Campbell, The Lives of the Lords Chancellors and Keepers of the Great Seal of England , vol. 2, 1851, p. 412. Archived from the original on 4 April 2023 . Retrieved 19 June 2010– via Google Books.

What's a Puritan, and Why Didn't They Stay in Massachusetts? by Walter W. Woodward Accessed 10 Jan 2021. Puritans were dissatisfied with the limited extent of the English Reformation and with the Church of England's toleration of certain practices associated with the Roman Catholic Church. They formed and identified with various religious groups advocating greater purity of worship and doctrine, as well as personal and corporate piety. Puritans adopted a covenant theology, and in that sense they were Calvinists (as were many of their earlier opponents). In church polity, some advocated separation from all other established Christian denominations in favour of autonomous gathered churches. These Separatist and Independent strands of Puritanism became prominent in the 1640s, when the supporters of a presbyterian polity in the Westminster Assembly were unable to forge a new English national church. Based on Biblical portrayals of Adam and Eve, Puritans believed that marriage was rooted in procreation, love, and, most importantly, salvation. [76] Husbands were the spiritual heads of the household, while women were to demonstrate religious piety and obedience under male authority. [77] Furthermore, marriage represented not only the relationship between husband and wife, but also the relationship between spouses and God. Puritan husbands commanded authority through family direction and prayer. The female relationship to her husband and to God was marked by submissiveness and humility. [78] Carpenter, John B. (Winter 2003). "New England's Puritan Century: Three Generations of Continuity in the City upon a Hill". Fides et Historia. The Conference on Faith and History. 35 (1): 41–58. Archived from the original on 9 August 2022 . Retrieved 26 May 2022.

Leighton, Denys (2004). The Greenian Moment: T.H. Green, Religion and Political Argument in Victorian Britain. Imprint Academic. ISBN 978-0907845546. Archived from the original on 4 April 2023 . Retrieved 28 October 2020. Carroll, Rory (25 February 2016). "America's dark and not-very-distant history of hating Catholics". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. Neil, Daniel (1844). The History of the Puritans, Or Protestant Noncomformists: From the Reformation in 1517, to the Revolution in 1688; Comprising an Account of Their Principles; Their Attempts for a Farther Reformation in the Church; Their Sufferings; and the Lives and Characters of Their Most Considerable Divines. Vol.1. p.246. Archived from the original on 4 May 2016 – via Google Books. That congregations could organise themselves and a Church hierarchy was not needed, especially bishops. Indian historians position Akbar as the exemplar of a just and tolerant Muslim leader, with popular films like Jodha Akbar even celebrating the love between the Emperor and his Hindu wife. In contrast, Aurangzeb is blamed for his supposed cruelty against non-Muslims, his influences on modern day jihadis , and his role in the collapse of the Mughal empire which set the stage for British colonial rule.

Barnett, James Harwood (1984). The American Christmas: A Study in National Culture. Ayer Publishing. ISBN 0-405-07671-1. The success of the Plymouth Colony led to what is known as the Great Migration (or the Puritan Migration) between 1620-1640 CE during which over 20,000 English Puritans migrated to New England, settling in Massachusetts primarily. In 1630 CE, a fleet of ships carrying 700 Puritans under the leadership of John Winthrop (l. c. 1588-1649 CE) arrived and established the Massachusetts Bay Colony centered around Boston. Winthrop believed this colony would be a City on a Hill (a reference to the biblical passage of Matthew 5:14: "You are the light of the world. A city that is set upon a hill cannot be hidden") which would draw others to it and be an exemplar of true Christian faith. Puritans in North America Ahlstrom, Sydney E. (2004) [1972]. A Religious History of the American People (2nded.). Yale University Press. ISBN 0-385-11164-9. Archived from the original on 4 April 2023 . Retrieved 28 October 2020– via Google Books. a b Lee, Sidney, ed. (1897). "Calamy, Edmund (1671–1732)". Dictionary of National Biography. Vol.51. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp.63–65.Anti-Catholic sentiment appeared in New England with the first Pilgrim and Puritan settlers. [146] In 1647, Massachusetts passed a law prohibiting any Jesuit Roman Catholic priests from entering territory under Puritan jurisdiction. [147] Any suspected person who could not clear himself was to be banished from the colony; a second offense carried a death penalty. [148] Historiography [ edit ] Second version of The Puritan, a late 19th-century sculpture by Augustus Saint-Gaudens Anne Bradstreet was the first female to have her works published in the British North American colonies. The 1653 Instrument of Government guaranteed that in matters of religion "none shall be compelled by penalties or otherwise, but endeavours be used to win them by sound Doctrine and the Example of a good conversation". Religious freedom was given to "all who profess Faith in God by Jesus Christ". [140] However, Catholics and some others were excluded. No one was executed for their religion during the Protectorate. [140] In London, those attending Catholic mass or Anglican holy communion were occasionally arrested but released without charge. Many unofficial Protestant congregations, such as Baptist churches, were permitted to meet. [141] Quakers were allowed to publish freely and hold meetings. They were, however, arrested for disrupting parish church services and organising tithe-strikes against the state church. [142] Quaker Mary Dyer led to execution on Boston Common, 1 June 1660, by an unknown 19th century artist The concept of covenant was extremely important to Puritans, and covenant theology was central to their beliefs. With roots in the writings of Reformed theologians John Calvin and Heinrich Bullinger, covenant theology was further developed by Puritan theologians Dudley Fenner, William Perkins, John Preston, Richard Sibbes, William Ames and, most fully by Ames's Dutch student, Johannes Cocceius. [49] Covenant theology asserts that when God created Adam and Eve he promised them eternal life in return for perfect obedience; this promise was termed the covenant of works. After the fall of man, human nature was corrupted by original sin and unable to fulfill the covenant of works, since each person inevitably violated God's law as expressed in the Ten Commandments. As sinners, every person deserved damnation. [50]



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